Posted by: faqir | June 19, 2010

What is Tawhid?

Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani (d. 852 Hijra) states:

وأما أهل السنة ففسروا التوحيد بنفي التشبيه والتعطيل، ومن ثم قال الجنيد فيما حكاه أبو القاسم القشيري ” التوحيد إفراد القديم من المحدث ” وقال أبو القاسم التميمي في ” كتاب الحجة ” التوحيد مصدر وحد يوحد، ومعنى وحدت الله اعتقدته منفردا بذاته وصفاته لا نظير له ولا شبيه، وقيل معنى وحدته علمته واحدا، وقيل سلبت عنه الكيفية والكمية فهو واحد في ذاته لا انقسام له، وفي صفاته لا شبيه له، في إلهيته وملكه وتدبيره لا شريك له ولا رب سواه ولا خالق غيره.
وقال ابن بطال تضمنت ترجمة الباب أن الله ليس بجسم لأن الجسم مركب من أشياء مؤلفة وذلك يرد على الجهمية في زعمهم أنه جسم، كذا وجدت فيه ولعله أراد أن يقول المشبهة، وأما الجهمية فلم يختلف أحد ممن صنف في المقالات أنهم ينفون الصفات حتى نسبوا إلى التعطيل، وثبت عن أبي حنيفة أنه قال بالغ جهم في نفي التشبيه حتى قال إن الله ليس بشيء.

The orthodox ulama explained tawhid, (the uniqueness of God) to be the repudiation of the notion that Allah has any attribute which resembles the attributes of created things [which notion in Arabic is called tashbih], and of the notion that He does not possess those transcendent attributes which His perfection and majesty require [which notion in Arabic is called ta`til].

That is why al-Junayd (d. 297 hegira / 910 AD) in a report transmitted by al Qushayri [in his al-Risalah] said: “Al-Tawhid consists in maintaining the uniqueness of the Unoriginated [that is, the Eternal−Arabic: qadim] with respect to the originated [Arabic−hadith].”

Abu Qasim al-Tamimi said in his book al-Hujjah:

Al-Tawhid is the verbal noun [Arabic −masdar] from which the past verb wahhada, and the present verb yuwahhidu are derived. The meaning of the sentence Wahhattu Allah is I`taqttu Allah munfaridan [that is, I declared (or maintained) categorically that Allah is unique] in His person (dhat), and that in respect of His attributes (sifat) He has no likeness nor resemblance.]” However, it has also been said that it means: “I acknowledge that He is one”, and likewise, that it means: “I deny Him all quality and quantity; for He is one in His Essence, indivisible; and one in His attributes; there is nothing which is like Him. He has no associate in His divinity, dominion, and providence. There is no other Lord than He, and no other Creator.”

Ibn Battal said: “The title that al-Bukhari has given the chapter [in his hadith collection called al-Sahih] implies that Allah is not a body because bodies are compounded of parts put together.”

[Fath al-Bari, (Beirut: Dar al-Ma`rifah), p. 344, vol. 14.]

Imam Muhammad al-Sanusi (d. 895 Hijra) said in the commentary upon his al-Barahin,

The establishment of the divinity of our Master the Majestic and Mighty with every reasonable person is undisputable. However, disbelief occurs when an additional deity is added. If other deities are added then negation of the deities that have been added to Allah ta`ala is required. This is how the science of Divine Unity (al-tawhid) came into being, so consider that.

[Nur as-Sa`ada]

Imam al-Bayjurî
(d. 1277 Hijra) said:

It is to single-out al-Ma’bûd (the One to be worshipped – i.e. Allâh) with worship, along with belief and affirmation in the oneness and uniqueness of His Dhât (Essence), Sifât (Attributes) and Actions.

[Tuhfat al-Murid ala Jawharah Al-Tawhid]


See also: The Ash’aris on True Tawhid and Shirk



  1. Salaam

    This is excellent… i am busy doing some commentry into english fromt he jawhara of Imam Bajuri… PLease dont post more articles here.

    Muhammad Allie.

  2. Apologies, in my previous responce, i meant ‘please do post more articles’ i di not mean ‘please dont post more articles :))

  3. Asalamu alaikum

    All praises belong to Allah, the Almighty. I am now relieved. Relieved in the sense that a scholarly, sound and credible refutations of the MUJASSIMAH doctrine (enlivened and spread by the Wahhabi adherents) is now a reality. More grease on your elbows. You will soon recieve my write-ups on this subject matter, by the Will and Grace of Allah

  4. […] [Tuhfatu-l Murid 'ala Jawharatu-t Tawhid]  Courtesy of The Ash’aris […]

  5. Salaam Habib Ahmad Yahya

    In your last post I see nothing attached or am not able to click on it to view your piece.

    Below is a link to one of articles I am currently busy with. I will post more in the Tssawuf section.

    Muhammad Allie.

  6. […] […]

  7. […] […]

  8. Thank you brother, I will post this on my blog.

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